The vehicle control unit as central E/E architecture component for all powertrain types Powertrain diversification is on the rise. To get the performance, you're pushing a lot of power, and you can deliver that efficiency. TI’s New GaN FETs for Automotive and Industrial: An Insider’s Perspective, Electronic Components of the Week (11/29 - 12/5), Solid-State Sensor for ADAS, Autonomous Driving Targets $500 Price Point. Here we are presenting a document “Electric vehicle PDF” that explains the basics of electric vehicles. already a key challenge. Therefore, you just get an overall simplified system. Adaptive cruise control systems allow modern cars to slow down and speed up as needed to maintain a driver-determined following distance (figure 2). features are aided or enabled by electronic components, embedded software, and their business still relies on making and selling large volumes of vehicles. TI’s new GaN FET addresses both automotive and industrial applications. Next-gen 600- and 650-V gallium-nitride FETs developed by Texas Instruments double the power density and achieve 99% efficiency. known as Tier 1 suppliers, are caught between legacy challenges like production The P4 architecture gives the vehicle four-wheel drive capabilities, with the front axle powered by an internal combustion engine and the rear axle powered by an electric motor. We optimize the layout; the waveforms are clean. To obtain a copy of the EVU study guide for this and other available EVU courses, please complete the form on this page. The battery, the electric motor, control electronics and regenerative braking are all discussed. We know those big leads at that speed, it's just an inductor. That allows you to switch fast, which is a big advantage. complexity of these architectures create new challenges for automotive original Now, more than ever, vehicle manufacturers need a supplier capable of analyzing their needs, and designing and manufacturing complete systems to meet all requirements. thread. The systems also feature enhanced reliability and better assembly line compatibility. Between large-scale technological 20. That was our intent there. their development processes to integrate across domains, automate design tasks, One is the digital temperature reporting. company, connecting IT, engineering, and manufacturing with a single digital And because the way it was optimized on a car, it gives you flexibility if you need to wire it to do different areas. A discussion of the Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) architecture and the component elements that must be present within a BEV system. Sign up for Electronic Design eNewsletters. supply chain is growing longer and larger due to the increasing E/E content in technologies requires comprehensive digitalization throughout an automotive And it's nice to hear other aspects of the advantages of the technology. Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Introduction A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has two types of energy storage units, electricity and fuel. The key is, you have to get those ideal waveforms because if you get clean square waveforms, you're not burning efficiency and seeing parasitic ringing. The end performance—whether it's the power density, whether it's the efficiency, whether it's just reducing thermals—if you can get the efficiency up, you can remove fans in your set of cooling fans. By using lead acid batteries, the weight of the car increases a lot (>>1000 pounds). The high-speed nature has been done for a long time as well. While the industry often relies on a standard of tightly integrated hardware and software architecture, the approach does pose several challenges. engineering. changes and the resulting shifts in industry dynamics, manufacturers and Those topologies also require isolation, so that’s the place we're able to merge in with different technologies. Others consider a distributed architecture with a greater number of ECUs a Our programs have been recognized and availed by Robert Bosch, Suzuki, and Hyundai to the name of a few. That's what's really new and differentiated with what we're doing. In future vehicles, OEMs will consolidate these In this environment, the An electric car simply consists of three main components – Battery, controller and electric motor. So, you're also thinking about thermal as well as parasitics. You say reference designs are coming, but what about evaluation kits? harness complexity, accelerated development cycles, and the need to develop new With each development, we ensure that the architecture guarantees the desired functionality and transition the concept to series production by way of calculation, simulation and testing. As told earlier, the battery used for this car is very expensive. Today, a majority of vehicle features are aided or enabled by electronic components, embedded software, and the underlying electrical and electronic (E/E) architecture. Just as a master architect constructs a home or building, our engineers use their experience, along with proprietary design tools, to create a virtual model of the E/E architecture. You know what I mean? One of the things the release brings up is in integrated high-speed protection and digital temperature reporting for active power management and thermal monitoring. Following a successful application, the project was ap- Now, are you using an open-source thing, like a PMBus kind of thing, or is this a proprietary command bus? Among the biggest concernsare increased complexity, reduced flexibility, and often-unavoidable vendor lock in, which can limit flexibility. Most vehicles have more than one mile of wiring, dozens of computer modules and multiple serial data links to implement the functionality demanded in today's market. component development, from design through manufacturing. That's why we've gone with this kind of QFN style—this low inductance—but at the same point, designed so that you can get the thermal mechanics. Second, the typical automotive We want to make it versatile. better option, primarily to create redundancy in vehicle systems. In His responsibilities include advanced product, process and technology development in Ohio. I live on the high-voltage side of the transformer; you have to be able to cross over the appropriate way to get to whatever you're trying to power. And suddenly that power dissipation dropped to near zero because your FET is now back on. The first vehicle to use the BEV3 GM electric vehicle architecture will be a midsize luxury CUV, which is expected to debut in April with a Cadillac badge attached. I think sometimes we take power management for granted because everything needs power. Third, the average new car today All Rights Reserved. Thanks for addressing that, because the two things you most often hear are power density and how the frequencies are so high. You have to talk about low noise and precision. We're trying to also come up with packages so that our customers are doing new things. devices. An optimal result is only possible with a view of the function and interplay of electronic components in the complete vehicle. And this is requiring the industry to rethink today’s approaches to vehicle software and electrical and electronic architecture. OEMs are attempting to provide this customization on a mass scale, as been validated. price. Architectural drawing symbols form an important role in any architecture drawing and help to define elements such as floor levels, lighting types and service locations. the supplier ecosystem to provide desirable features only compounds this platform, all of which are needed to enable functional connectivity between companies move to scale and creating profit from a new technology once it has We want our customers to make the most differentiated products. With computer modeling and simulation tools, design direction can be verified to meet customer requirements for cost, mass, packaging efficiency and more. A mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) has a dual electrical architecture, which consists of a 12 V network connected through a DCDC to a 48 V network. Is there anything you feel we haven't touched on that you think is important to leave with the audience? importance of the underlying E/E architecture is paramount. DIYguru has prepared a one-of-a-kind certification course with job assiatnce on Fundamentals of Electric Vehicle Engineering of 90 Days in partnership with E-Mobility companies providing you with 100% self-paced online program. are explained in another PDF that we would send to you later. However, the magnitude of savings available at the systems level is much greater, as long as an integrated methodology is used to develop the architecture. contains between 70-100 ECUs. You’ve got to be able to distribute the power where you must get it off the board. Electric car rebates and incentives A great reason which attracts consumers to go for EVs is the country and state incentives available in the form of various subsidies and policies. comfort and convenience features rely on the electrical and electronic systems. These suppliers, Consumers want increased freedom to In your release, you talk about your ultra-cool packaging. It's also important in a lot of the topologies we do with GaN. Embedded software has also come to play a dominant role in vehicle Thus, it becomes more challenging to track and coordinate among thousands of Modern cars contain millions of lines of code that make up The design of the physical architecture of the electrical system has a big impact on vehicle cost and weight. You’ve got to get the right size pads. understand the change being implemented and its effects on their domain is Using this approach, new designs reduce mass by up to 20% and cost by as much as 30%. Can you talk a little bit about that aspect, what's coming in the way of designs and kits and the like? In the automotive device, there's a trend and oftentimes requirement to get to that higher voltage, that 650-V level, versus industrial, where 600 V make sense when a lot of the offline power is power supplies. Reduce your power dissipation and push your system that much harder. An electric vehicle (EV), also called electrics is a vehicle that uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. Systems that previously evolved independently will begin to integrate, and depend on each other to realize new functionalities. If they want to do totem-pole PFCs, or any number of multi-level typologies, or more higher-power advanced typologies, that's your basic sub-building blocks you can plug in. In each case, OEMs will look to You may read the blog posts related to electric vehicle charging. We knew that we had to get a different type of package. Image: MHEV 12-48V electric system architecture The main difference is that the 12 V generator doesn’t exist anymore since its function is taken over by the 48 V electric machine. The turn on assist, we can call it ideal diode mode or other different ways, but it's that optimal sensing and turn on that you're able to get. Suppliers work extremely hard to shave 1% to 3% off the cost of their components. However, as we are focusing on only the electric two-wheelers in the blog, we will stick to a few particular vehicle ECUs critical for the design of an Electric Two-Wheeler. Other technologies such as vehicle to grid, vehicle to home, solar charging of Electric Vehicle, etc. How far this consolidation should go; Is the industrial device simply a version of the automotive device, or does it do things differently? We talk about active power management. As vehicle features continue to evolve and grow in sophistication, previously unrelated subsystems will come into contact. Between the parasitics and the design and all, the current generation of passive and transistor packaging does not hold up to the performance that wide bandgap promises. Both have similar power levels, power delivery. Texas Instruments recently expanded its high-voltage power management portfolio with next-generation 650- and 600-V gallium-nitride (GaN) field-effect transistors (FETs) for automotive and industrial applications. deliver the sophisticated vehicles demanded by the market. They're so astronomically high that your magnetics can be the size of a match head. build, as well as corresponding connectors and terminals across the vehicle Numerous vehicles already benefiting from the E/E architecture expertise are on the road in Asia, Europe and North America — and more are on the way as OEMs discover the value in working with suppliers offering an E/E architecture vision. The criticality of the automotive E/E architecture, Criticality in automotive E/E architectures. E/E architecture complements how automakers want to build their vehicles and how drivers want their vehicles to perform. The implementation we're doing, we take that GaN FET and integrate a high-performance silicon driver to optimize the performance of FET, and we put it in an advanced package that allows you to get thermals out efficiently without compromising electrical performance. By putting a silicon driver with our GaN FET, you get that brawn of GaN, but you also get the brains and the precision of a silicon driver, so you're getting the best of both worlds. Safety, handling, propulsion and entertainment are just a sampling of the many systems that depend upon electrical and electronic (E/E) architecture. Everybody's been talking about power density and efficiency, but let’s talk about something we don't often see, and that's TI touting the isolation and low noise of these parts. We focus on the half-bridge. As OEMs and Electricity means that a battery (sometimes assisted by ultracaps) is used to store the energy, and that an electromotor (from now on called motor) will be used as traction motor. integration is a tremendously complex system of electronic control units We want to get our customers up and running as soon as possible. Today, a majority of vehicle Hughes, in Vehicle Thermal Management Systems Conference and Exhibition (VTMS10), 2011. When thinking about power, if you want to optimize and deliver properly, having analog high-precision circuits to give you that low-noise capability allows you to get the most out of what you're trying to deliver. suppliers face a challenging road ahead. What I would say is it's exciting to see what the technology can do. In some instances, it can eliminate the need for specific components altogether, which leads to significant savings. The challenges created by the Ensuring that all teams Indeed, the challenge only grows as Electrical systems are groups of electrical components connected to carry out some operation. © 2020 Siemens Digital Industries Software. ABSTRACT. Over time, vehicles have become Global automotive technology company Aptiv, unveiled its new Smart Vehicle Architecture (SVA) at CES on Tuesday.SVA is a flexible and scalable vehicle-level architecture designed to reduce vehicle complexity during assembly, while improving safety and support software for … however, is a point of major debate. S.A. Dossett, C.A.V. Read more in our whitepaper: The criticality of the automotive E/E architecture, You may also be interested in this on-demand webinar: Criticality in automotive E/E architectures. Mechanical systems accounted for most of this complexity for much of the car’s history, The device for industrial use sits in a 1U rack for a telecom or an enterprise PSU. I mentioned we can send the voltage a current, which is useful. You've got to get the heat thing. efficiency and product quality, and emerging challenges such as ballooning Pure Electric Vehicles (EVs) specifically are becoming viable in part due to advances in attainable battery energy density, realising useable vehicle performance. The digitalization strategy must also support agility and collaboration The introduction of cruise control in the late 1950s was the first integration of electrical and mechanical systems in a vehicle (figure 1). As I see it, the term architecture is a fitting one to describe the up-front process of defining a vehicle's electrical and electronic system early in the vehicle design cycle. Contracting with additional suppliers and expanding networks. So, we've spent a lot of time talking about the GaN process, because that's kind of the headliner, but without the packaging, you can't pull it off. sophistication. Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs), compared to classic internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, are fairly simple and easy to operate.The simplest powertrain architecture consists in a high voltage battery, an electric motor with power electronics controller and a single speed gearbox. Developed using proprietary materials and processing with a GaN-on-silicon (Si) substrate, these GaN FETs can address applications from driving electric-vehicle (EV) onboard chargers to empowering hyperscale and enterprise computing platforms. electrical distribution system design and integration services. development of vehicle software in-house. We focused on integrating the driver to get the highest DVT, because if you have slow DVT, you're just burning power. Often the systems are combined with other systems. This is changing OEM-supplier That's all you hear. There's also another feature here. more stringent safety requirements increase the challenge of vehicle design. evolution of the E/E architecture are not confined to vehicle design and Pricing has become very aggressive—it’s being able to be competitive with existing technologies. The reason GaN can provide the power density and efficiency is because we use new topologies. They've been used in low voltage for a long time. problem. required to cascade and implement design changes. Low carbon vehicle developments are an area of intense activity for automotive manufacturers. So, when we look at it, there's really no reason not to move over to GaN and take advantage of what it can bring in. Lear’s knowledge of the vehicle architecture and expertise in systems integration provides a competitive advantage in designing and delivering power distribution systems that support traditional electrical architectures, as well as emerging high-power and hybrid systems. This daughtercard, with its two devices, has everything you need to get up and running. We never had a TO-220 type of package. People have always been trying to push one, five, 10 kilowatts, or more. As I see it, the term architecture is a fitting one to describe the up-front process of defining a vehicle's electrical and electronic system early in the vehicle design cycle. Some advocate for a centralized architecture contrast, OEMs simultaneously try to re-use bills-of-materials (BOM) as much as If you're just blasting the device, it's going to lead to trouble. Since the hardware and software challenges related to two-wheeler architecture design are quite different from that of four wheelers. It further improves packaging so electrical and electronic components fit in smaller or more accessible places. It’s proportional to the temperature. If you've got to shift domains in the voltage, you have to have an isolation barrier. The base of any car is the battery. particularly in the automated driving space. the underlying electrical and electronic (E/E) architecture. We want to make it so you can basically plug it in. Ford has employed a new electric vehicle architecture on upcoming models like the Mustang Mach-E and F-150 pickup to make this possible but up until now, we didn't know what the system was called. with technological and organizational change. The way we've architected this is that we've identified power topics as things that our customers really care about, things that have been important, things that are emerging in places where we see we can add significant advantage of differentiation. The challenge is, can you get the high power, the high speed, and that fine-pitch packaging, and do it all at the same time? Also, some of the fine-pitch, some of the QFN-type packages we use, those aren't new. One of the bigger differences is, as I mentioned before, in the automotive version we put the power pad on top, so you can implement it with a cold plate. All this painstaking attention to detail in the design phase pays off when it comes to manufacturing a complete E/E system for customers. suppliers are expanding the services they offer to cover the full range of with a few, or a singular, very powerful ECU(s) managing vehicle functions. I'm just excited that we can be part of it. In response, automakers can adopt several important measures. You can put it on a daughtercard and stand it up. limit investments to save on cost, but increasing architectural complexity and equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and their suppliers. These challenges will only across the OEM-supplier ecosystem. Block Diagram of an electric car. Today's drivers expect their cars and trucks to work flawlessly for as long as they own them, yet remain un-aware of the underlying complexity of the electronic nervous system that makes everything work. The first is the voltage level. As vehicles become equipped with more electronically driven features like navigation systems, satellite radio, airbags, climate control and power closures, the development of E/E architecture has evolved into a more prominent role in the transportation industry. And hence the reason for TI's focus in this direction. into fewer more powerful control units. Addressing an urgent industry concern As the automotive industry is transitioning from hardware- to software-defined vehicles, the relevance of software for core technology trends is increasing rapidly. It touches all areas of the vehicle, including harsh environments and densely packaged real estate. It appears to have dropped the sobriquet "Global B," but General Motors' new electrical architecture has bowed in drawings and video.This is the "digital vehicle platform" GM … Which brings me to the next point, because packaging is a significant issue when it comes to wide-bandgap semiconductors. It basically gives the end user flexibility for any type of motherboard they're working on. Packard Electrical/Electronic Architecture Hybrid & Electric Vehicle Portfolio Connection Systems, Electrical Centers, Wiring Assemblies and Charging Solutions . We have seen new designs reduce mass by up to 20% and cost by as much as 30% — all while improving functionality. In late 2009, the partners of the research project ELVA – Advanced Electric Vehicle Architec-tures have identified the need for scientifically investigating the prospects of electric vehicles in terms of architecture and design. If we're testing that current, we just turn the FET back on automatically. relationships, as automakers begin to source only hardware from their supplier Meeting Code Execution and Data Performance Needs for Auto Apps, Automotive GaN FET Features Integrated Driver, Transphorm’s Gen III GaN Platform Passes AEC-Q101, GaN Power Transistors: Master Strokes on a Power-Supply Canvas. They're having to find ways to think about how to integrate these in, but that's what's exciting about what we're seeing with some of our new parts. 2 Hybrid and electric vehicles present unique challenges when it comes to electrical/electronic (E/E) architecture. There's a couple of differences. Ford, for example, developed an all-new electric vehicle architecture for the sole purpose of enabling over-the-air updates, translating to fewer visits to the dealership for software-related issues. Gone are the days when a vehicle electronic system controls just one or two high-end accessories. Coping with the complexity of the electrical-electronic architecture in modern vehicles requires an integrated design methodology. It's just not going to work. Steve joined TI after graduating from the University of Michigan with BSEE and MS IOE degrees. Since then, cruise control has continued to evolve. In automobiles, a 42-volt electrical system was an electrical power standard proposed in the late 1990s. On that daughtercard, we have the two devices, so you have everything you need to get up and running. Hence, we call an E/E system a natural integrator. The size and That benefit is what's really exciting, and that's what I enjoy seeing as people find different ways to use the parts. GaN is almost exclusively used in a half-bridge, the high-side and low-side device, so you're taking advantage that GaN has zero reverse-recovery targets. I spent a lot of time myself personally addressing power density, but the key is the isolation technology. safety features to the automatic door locks. This increased challenge equates to greater cost, as investment is necessary to In: India conf (INDICON), annu IEEE, vol 1, pp 875–878. The result of this innovation and Integrating a 2.2-MHz integrated gate driver, the devices can enable twice the power density, achieve up to 99% efficiency, and reduce the size of power magnetics by up to 59% compared to existing solutions. For example, a subway rapid transitelectrical system is composed of the wayside electrical power supply, w… Moving forward, Tier 1 suppliers will but electrical and electronic systems have steadily increased in Let's start with the trends in wide-bandgap power electronics, because in this case, talking about the trends is a good place to start. and provide robust data coherency in order to tackle the challenges that come And that's why we’re so focused on it—it’s that important. And I think if you look at the power levels, the power levels aren't new. There are two specific features. need to move upstream in the value chain to offer full wiring harness and It's a hobby of mine, because without the packaging, you can't get the power. It was intended to allow more powerful electrically-driven accessories, and lighter automobile wiring harnesses. Electric vehicles are not something new to this world, but with the technological advancement and increased concern on controlling pollution has given it a tag of future mobility. Tuatara, the World’s Fastest Production Car? (ECUs), sensors, actuators, and wiring to connect it all together. organizations and business models will lay the foundation for future success. Major OEMs and suppliers alike are realizing that changes to their All rights reserved. On the process side, they can pursue a more dynamic software-cycle plan that involves frequent releases decoupled from rigid, distant vehicle-platform SOP dates (Exhibit 2)… ... Algorithm for selection of motor and vehicle architecture for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. This can be as simple as a flashlight cell connected through two wires to a light bulb or as involved as the space shuttle. Capitalizing on the vast opportunity of advanced vehicle functionality. And, automated emergency braking systems can bring vehicles to a complete stop even if the driver is not paying attention. They might be subsystems of larger systems and have subsystems of their own. dramatically more complex due to technological advances and consumer trends. We actually kept it pretty simple for this one—it’s just a simple PWM out, you could run that directly into a micro. And now, we know what that electrical system is called. common and unique components, such as the correct version of an ECU or software become more intense as companies continue to advance vehicle technologies, Focused on both electrical distribution and electronic components, Delphi's E/E architecture design methodology helps ensure the optimal selection of vehicle data networks, diagnostics, fault tolerance, physical/functional partitioning, and power and signal distribution. But if you can't control it with precision, you can't get the right switching waveforms. suppliers look to innovate via the E/E architecture, they will need to evolve possible across vehicle platforms to reduce costs in design and manufacturing. technologies to stay ahead of competition. In response, long-time automotive Whether it's a MOSFET or other GaN FETs, that device will passively conduct current of the reverse direction, but you get that body die out and you burn a lot of power. So, isolation's important for that. In Germany, Wright is responsible for reliability engineering and global E/E architecture technology development. customize their vehicles through optional features without paying a premium Automotive electronics are electronic systems used in vehicles, including engine management, ignition, radio, carputers, telematics, in-car entertainment systems, and others.Ignition, engine and transmission electronics are also found in trucks, motorcycles, off-road vehicles, and other internal combustion powered machinery such as forklifts, tractors and excavators. As vehicle features continue to evolve and grow in sophistication, previously unrelated subsystems will come into contact. While there used to be little else than diesel and gasoline engines in the past, now powertrain solutions include all degrees of electrification. Engine management, braking, steering, infotainment, and other OEMs are investing in increasing their software competency to bring the An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels, fuel cells or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. The new Ford electrical vehicle architecture has officially been named “fully-networked vehicle,” or FNV for short, Ali Jamoul, North America Engineering Director at Ford Motor Company, confirmed to Ford Authority at a … vehicles. To get a better handle on what this represents for the engineering community, we sat down with Steve Tom, who manages the GaN product line within TI’s High-Voltage Power business unit. Longer and larger supplier pipelines can greatly increase the time Electrical system design is the design of electrical systems. Dave Wright is director of advanced engineering and electrical/electronic architecture for Delphi Packard E/E Architecture. © 2020 Endeavor Business Media, LLC. applications for everything from the most advanced infotainment and passive I see you have this daughtercard available. So, like a synchronous converter, your current is going to reverse and we can sense that reversal.